Every year, an increasing quantity of new information is presented at the major urologic and oncologic congresses such as the European Association of Urology (EAU), the American Urological Association (AUA), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and so forth. Because of the delay until final publication of these data, it is very difficult for urologists to keep up to date with the new scientific information relevant for their own clinical practise. In light of this difficulty, a closed expert meeting “New Horizons in Urology” (NHU) was held in October 2006 in Marbella, Spain. The objective of this meeting was to provide practising urologists with the most important information with practical clinical relevance to urologists presented during the major urologic and oncologic meetings. This information was selected and presented by leading experts in the field of functional and oncologic urology. Nonmalignant disease areas that were considered were surgical interventions for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH), benign bladder diseases, and stone disease. Malignant disease topics were prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer. Each session started with a clinical case workshop during which the attendee's opinion on the management of the clinical case was assessed via interactive voting, followed by a discussion of the expert panel. The sessions were closed with a brief update lecture. The current paper summarises the highlights of the closed expert meeting.
Keywords: Bladder cancer, Benign bladder diseases, Expert meeting, Kidney cancer, Prostate cancer, Stone disease, Surgery, Urology.
In October 2006, a closed expert meeting, ‘New Horizons in Urology’ (NHU), was held in Marbella, Spain, which included about 135 practising urologists and leading experts from different European countries. The objective of this meeting was to provide urologists with up-to-date scientific information on various subjects in the field of functional and oncologic urology. The scientific sessions dealt with three nonmalignant disease subjects (ie, surgical interventions for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia [LUTS/BPH], benign bladder diseases, and stone disease) and three malignant disease subjects (ie, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer). Each session started with a clinical case workshop including two cases to illustrate new insight in the disease area and/or new management guidelines. The attendee's opinion on the management of the clinical case was assessed via interactive voting. Each vote was followed by a discussion with the expert panel. The sessions were closed with a brief update lecture covering new insights in the disease area with a discussion on potential impacts on clinical practise. Senior urologists attending the 2006 major urology and oncology meetings selected the key information that was presented during the update lectures. This paper summarises the main outcomes of the different topics discussed during the closed expert meeting.
2.1. Highlights on nonmalignant diseases—functional urology
2.1.1. Surgical interventions for LUTS/BPH
At this year's European Association of Urology (EAU) and American Urological Association (AUA) meetings, various randomised controlled trials comparing (minimally invasive) surgical interventions with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for patients with LUTS/BPH were presented. Rowland Illing presented the outcomes of some of these trials including at least 100 LUTS/BPH patients and with at least 1-yr follow-up . Electrosurgical or laser alternatives for TURP such as bipolar transurethral resection in saline, transurethral vaporisation of the prostate, and holmium laser resection/enucleation were found to have an efficacy comparable to TURP and good safety profiles , , , and . Energy-based ablative techniques like transurethral needle ablation, transurethral microwave therapy, and photoselective vaporisation of the prostate were also suggested as possible alternatives for TURP. These therapies seem to be associated with a lower risk of complications than TURP , , and . Mechanical stenting was suggested as a possible treatment for high-risk patients who cannot be anaesthetised . Finally, there were promising preliminary data with regard to the use of botulinum toxin A injections into the prostate  and . It was emphasised that more prospective trials are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety (>5-yr follow-up) of these surgical and minimally invasive interventions.
2.1.2. The bladder
Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler summarised the most relevant new findings on functional bladder problems, focusing on bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) . It was stated that, as the diagnosis and treatment of patients with functional bladder problems varies considerably among practising urologists, continuous medical education of urologists is needed. With regard to BOO, the role of uroflowmetry and ultrasound as potential noninvasive diagnostic tools and the use of α1-adrenoceptor antagonists as a therapeutic aid were discussed , , and . With respect to PBS/IC, it was emphasised that there is need for a standardised definition. Tenderness on bladder palpation was considered to be useful observation in the initial screening and evaluation of IC patients in clinical practise . Finally, botulinum toxin A and cyclosporine A have been suggested as promising treatments for PBS/IC  and , but further research is warranted to evaluate their long-term efficacy and safety.
2.1.3. Stone disease
The highlights of 2006 on stone disease were presented by Thomas Knoll . Nowadays, high-risk patients, patients with kidney stones that fail to pass spontaneously, and those with stones larger than 5
2.1.4. Nocturia and tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS)
Philip Van Kerrebroeck presented interesting data on the control of nocturia in patients with LUTS/BPH . Nocturia, or the complaint that an individual has to wake at night one or more times to void, is considered one of the most bothersome LUTS. It can considerably affect the patient's sleep pattern and lead to daytime sleepiness and even health problems . In view of the problems related to nocturia, treatments for LUTS/BPH should be evaluated for their effect on nocturia, quality of sleep (QoS), and quality of life (QoL) . The first 3–4
2.2. Highlights on malignant diseases—oncologic urology
2.2.1. Prostate cancer
Interesting new data on the screening, detection, and management of prostate cancer (PCa) that were presented at the major 2006 urologic and oncologic meetings were discussed by Pierre Teillac . One of the most relevant new findings with respect to the screening for PCa came from a study investigating the diagnostic yield of two prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cut-off values, 2.5
2.2.2. Bladder cancer
Antonio Alcaraz summarised many interesting new data on the surveillance and treatment of patients with bladder cancer (BCa) that were presented at the key urologic congresses in 2006 . A number of studies in the field of BCa evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of the biomarkers survivin and nuclear matrix protein (NMP)-22. However, these studies had rather inconsistent outcomes regarding the specificity and sensitivity of these markers for the detection and follow-up of BCa. It was emphasised that more research is warranted to assess whether either of these biomarkers can replace voided urine cytology or cystoscopy in daily practise. A major revelation at this year's urology congresses was the introduction of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) tables to calculate the risk of recurrence and progression of superficial BCa patients . These tables are considered to be very important decision-making tools for the treatment and follow-up of patients with superficial disease. Radical cystectomy is still the treatment of choice for patients with recurrent superficial BCa after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) failure. However, several more conservative second-line treatments are under investigation. For example, a phase 2 multicentre trial presented at the 2006 AUA annual meeting showed that patients with recurrent superficial BCa after >12 mo of remission have a similar cancer-free survival rate as BCG-naive patients after BCG
2.2.3. Kidney cancer
As discussed by Francesco Montorsi, several relevant new data on surgical and minimally invasive treatment of localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and systemic treatments for advanced RCC were presented in 2006 at the urologic and oncologic meetings . Previous research demonstrated that partial nephrectomy provides recurrence-free and long-term survival rates similar to those observed after radical neprectomy in patients with a tumour <4
2.2.4. Optimal testosterone control and Eligard
The importance of optimal testosterone control in PCa and the advantages of the luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist Eligard in this respect were discussed by Bertrand Tombal and Richard Berges . LHRH agonists are developed to reduce testosterone levels to a similar degree as surgical castration. However, a percentage of patients treated with conventional LHRH agonists do not achieve these levels , , and . Moreover, many patients experience injection-related and breakthrough testosterone escapes during treatment  and . In contrast to these conventional formulations, Eligard offers 1-, 3-, and 6-mo depot formulations using a superior delivery system. All three formulations of Eligard successfully reduce and maintain testosterone levels comparable to orchidectomy in the majority of patients , , and . The Eligard 6-mo formulation is the first LHRH agonist that extends treatment for 6 mo. In addition, it allows flexible monitoring of patients as the need for visits to administer injections is removed. Fewer visits to the physician also imply that the patient is less often reminded of his condition, which may reduce emotional distress.
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a University Clinics of Brussels, Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium
b Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
© 2007 European Association of Urology, Published by Elsevier B.V.