Articles

Kidney Cancer

Indium-111–labeled Girentuximab ImmunoSPECT as a Diagnostic Tool in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

By: Constantijn H.J. Muselaersa b lowast , Otto C. Boermanb, Egbert Oosterwijka, Johannes F. Langenhuijsena, Wim J.G. Oyenb and Peter F.A. Muldersa

European Urology, Volume 63 Issue 1, June 2013, Pages 1101-1106

Published online: 01 June 2013

Keywords: CAIX, Chimeric monoclonal antibody G250, Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Girentuximab, Renal masses

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Abstract

Background

Improved and more frequent radiologic evaluation has resulted in increased identification of renal masses of unknown origin, which frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma for urologists.

Objective

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an antigen ubiquitously expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The specific and high level of expression in ccRCC makes CAIX an excellent target for imaging ccRCC lesions. We present our experience with immuno–single-photon emission computed tomography (immunoSPECT) imaging with the indium-111 (111In)–labeled anti-CAIX antibody girentuximab in patients presenting with either a primary renal tumor or a history of ccRCC and lesions suspect for metastases during follow-up.

Design, setting, and participants

Twenty-nine patients received 100–200 MBq 111In-labeled girentuximab. Whole-body and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were acquired after 4–7 d.

Intervention

Injection with 111In-girentuximab and image acquisition after 4–7 d.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis

Accuracy of 111In-girentuximab immunoSPECT.

Results and limitations

Distinct uptake of 111In-girentuximab was seen in 16 of 22 patients presenting with a renal mass. All renal masses proven to be ccRCC after resection (n=15) were detected with 111In-girentuximab. Suspect lesions of six patients showed no uptake of 111In-girentuximab. In these patients, ccRCC was not found, nor progression occurred. Seven patients with a history of ccRCC and possible metastatic lesions on follow-up computed tomography scans were imaged with 111In-girentuximab. In four of these patients, the lesions showed preferential uptake of 111In-girentuximab and local or systemic treatment was initiated. In three other cases, no 111In-girentuximab targeting was seen. During follow-up of these three patients, one showed progression, for which systemic treatment was started. In the two other patients, no progression occurred, suggesting a benign nature.

Conclusions

111In-girentuximab immunoSPECT can be used to detect ccRCC lesions in patients with a primary renal mass and to clarify the nature of lesions suspect for metastases in patients with a history of ccRCC.

Take Home Message

Girentuximab labeled with indium-111 immuno-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful, noninvasive diagnostic tool to detect clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) lesions in patients with a renal mass. In addition, it can be used to clarify the nature of lesions suspect for metastases in patients with a history of ccRCC.

Keywords: CAIX, Chimeric monoclonal antibody G250, Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Girentuximab, Renal masses.

Footnotes

a Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

b Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

lowast Corresponding author. Geert Grooteplein Centraal 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Tel. +31 2413735; Fax: +31 24 3541031.

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