Articles in press
Features Associated with Recurrence Beyond 5 Years After Nephrectomy and Nephron-Sparing Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Development and Internal Validation of a Risk Model (PRELANE score) to Predict Late Recurrence Based on a Large Multicenter Database (CORONA/SATURN Project)
Accepted 13 June 2012, Published online 23 June 2012
Approximately 10–20% of recurrences in patients treated with nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) develop beyond 5 yr after surgery (late recurrence).
To determine features associated with late recurrence.
Design, setting, and participants
A total of 5009 patients from a multicenter database comprising 13 107 RCC patients treated surgically had a minimum recurrence-free survival of 60 mo (median follow-up [FU]: 105 mo [range: 78–135]); at last FU, 4699 were disease free (median FU: 103 mo [range: 78–134]), and 310 patients (6.2%) experienced disease recurrence (median FU: 120 mo [range: 93–149]).
Patients underwent radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Multivariable regression analyses identified features associated with late recurrence. Cox regression analyses evaluated the association of features with cancer-specific mortality (CSM).
Results and limitations
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (odds ratio [OR]: 3.07; p < 0.001), Fuhrman grade 3–4 (OR: 1.60; p = 0.001), and pT stage >pT1 (OR: 2.28; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with late recurrence. Based on accordant regression coefficients, these parameters were weighted with point values (LVI: 2 points; Fuhrman grade 3–4: 1 point, pT stage >1: 2 points), and a risk score was developed for the prediction of late recurrences. The calculated values (0 points: late recurrence risk 3.1%; 1–3 points: 8.4%; 4–5 points: 22.1%) resulted in a good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis group (area under the curve value for the model: 70%; 95% confidence interval, 67–73). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed LVI (HR: 2.75; p < 0.001), pT stage (HR: 1.24; p < 0.001), Fuhrman grade (HR: 2.40; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.01; p < 0.001), and gender (HR: 0.71; p = 0.027) to influence CSM significantly. Limitations are based on the multicenter and retrospective study design.
LVI, Fuhrman grade 3/4, and a tumor stage >pT1 are independent predictors of late recurrence after at least 5 yr from surgery in patients with RCC. We developed a risk score that allows for prognostic stratification and individualized aftercare of patients with regard to counseling, follow-up scheduling, and clinical trial design.
Recommend this article
Currently this article has a rating of 0. Please log in to recommend it.