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European UrologyVolume 62, issue 4, pages e69-e82, October 2012
Surgery in Motion
Laparoscopic Marsupialisation of Pelvic Lymphoceles in Different Anatomic Locations Following Radical Prostatectomy
Accepted 28 May 2012, Published online 7 June 2012, pages 640 - 648
Pelvic lymphoceles (LCs) following radical prostatectomy (LC-RPs) are a well-described complication. Symptomatic LC-RPs are the most frequent, nonfunctional, postradical prostatectomy complications.
Description of the clinical presentations of LC-RPs and the detailed technique of laparoscopic pelvic LC marsupialisation (LM), including perioperative results and follow-up.
Design, setting, and participants
Data from 105 patients (age range: 57–76 yr) with symptomatic LC-RPs who underwent surgery in our institute were evaluated retrospectively. Pelvic ultrasound (US) and computed tomography scans, performed on all patients, revealed LC volumes ranging from 100 to 1200 ml. Fifty-five patients were refractory to prior percutaneous tube drainage and/or sclerotherapy. LM was performed using a three-trocar (n = 60 patients) or two-trocar technique (n = 45 patients).
With the patient in Trendelenburg position, LCs were accurately identified by inspection, compressibility, and/or laparoscopic needle aspiration. A Foley catheter was inserted. Through one or two working trocars in the left lower abdomen, an adequate peritoneal window (wide ellipse) was excised. The LC cavity was inspected and septae, membranes, and haematomas were removed.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Perioperative surgical outcomes, analgesic medication, and inflammation parameters were recorded. Follow-up and success rates were estimated with US for LC recurrence.
Results and limitations
Five pelvic LC locations could be identified: paravesical, lateral pelvic (encapsulated and uncapsulated), prevesical, and with retroperitoneal extension. These were relevant for clinical diagnosis and management options. Pelvic LCs were right-sided in 37 patients, left-sided in 15, and on both sides in 53. All LM were uneventful and operating time (mean) ranged from 15 to 265 (31.7) min, which became shorter with increasing experience. One conversion with postoperative blood transfusion was necessary. Patients were discharged between 2 and 4 (mean: 2.3) d postoperatively. Postoperative US revealed primary success in all cases. Three patients developed recurrence from 1 to 3 wk posthospitalisation; otherwise, none had treatment for LC during a mean follow-up of 20 mo. Limitations include the retrospective study design and the small number of patients.
LC-RPs are common and can be classified into five different patterns of clinical/anatomic presentation. LM is simple, feasible, and safe as the first-line treatment for large, noninfected, symptomatic or refractory LC-RPs with fewer complications and an overall 97% success rate.
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