Articles

Platinum Priority – Stone Disease
Editorial by Brian R. Matlaga on pp. 166–167 of this issue

Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States eulogo1

By: Charles D. Scales Jr.a b lowast , Alexandria C. Smithc, Janet M. Hanleyc and Christopher S. Saigala c Urologic Diseases in America Project.

European Urology, Volume 62 Issue 1, July 2012, Pages 160-165

Published online: 01 July 2012

Keywords: Urinary lithiasis, Epidemiology, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF (297 KB)

Abstract

Background

The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history.

Objective

Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones.

Design, setting, and participants

A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007–2010 NHANES (n=12 110).

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis

Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones.

Results and limitations

The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4–11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4–7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0–12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8–7.4], respectively; p<0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28–0.49], p<0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49–0.73], p<0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones.

Conclusions

Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones.

Take Home Message

The prevalence of kidney stones in the United States has increased from 1 in 20 persons to 1 in 11 persons since 1994. This change is likely related to the rising prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the US population.

Keywords: Urinary lithiasis, Epidemiology, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Footnotes

a UCLA Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

b UCLA Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

c RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA

lowast Corresponding author. Departments of Urology and Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 911 Broxton Avenue, 3rd Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. Tel. +1 310 794 2206; Fax: +1 310 794 3288.

z.star Please visit www.eu-acme.org/europeanurology to read and answer questions on-line. The EU-ACME credits will then be attributed automatically.

Place a comment

Your comment *

max length: 5000