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European UrologyVolume 61, issue 1, pages e1-e2, January 2012
Baseline Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing at a Young Age
Accepted 29 July 2011, Published online 10 August 2011, pages 1 - 7
Prostate cancer screening is highly controversial, including the age to begin prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Several studies have evaluated the usefulness of baseline PSA measurements at a young age.
Review the literature on baseline PSA testing at a young age (≤60 yr) for the prediction of prostate cancer risk and prognosis.
PubMed was searched for English-language publications on baseline PSA and prostate cancer for the period ending April 2011.
In most published series, median PSA levels in the general male population range from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 ng/ml in men in their 40s and from approximately 0.7 to 1.0 ng/ml in men in their 50s. Evidence from both nonscreening and screening populations has demonstrated the predictive value of a single baseline PSA measurement for prostate cancer risk assessment. Specifically, men with baseline PSA levels above the age-group-specific median have a greater risk of prostate cancer diagnosis during the next 20–25 yr. Additional studies confirmed that higher baseline PSA levels at a young age are also associated with a greater risk of aggressive disease, metastasis, and disease-specific mortality many years later.
Baseline PSA measurements at a young age are significant predictors of later prostate cancer diagnosis and disease-specific outcomes. Thus baseline PSA testing may be used for risk stratification and to guide screening protocols.
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