CpG island hypermethylation may be one of the earliest somatic genome alterations to occur during the development of multiple cancers. Recently, aberrant methylation patterns for different tumors have been reported. We present a comprehensive review of the literature describing the role of CpG island hypermethlytion of DNA from prostatic tissue and bodily fluids from men with prostate cancer. We reviewed the literature to evaluate CpG island hypermethylation in tissue and bodily fluids of men with primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Additionally, we reviewed the literature with respect to CpG island hypermethylation patterns in other urological malignancies.Using modern analytic methods, CpG island hypermethylation detection can be achieved. In men with prostate cancer, correlations between specific gene regulatory region hypermethylation analyses and Gleason score, pathologic stage and tumor recurrence have been demonstrated. CpG island hypermethylation may serve as a useful molecular biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of patients with prostate cancer.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, DNA methylation, Hypermethylation, CpG island, GSTP1, Gluthatione S-transferase, Epigenetics.
a The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231-1000, USA
b Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
c Department of Pharmacology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
d The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
e Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Corresponding author. Tel. +1 410 614 1661; Fax: +1 410 502 9817.
Co-corresponding author. Klinik und Poliklinik fur Urologie, Universitatsklinikum Bonn, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitat Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53129 Bonn, Germany. Tel. +49 228 287 5109; Fax: +49 228 287 4285.
© 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.