Prostate cancer (PCa) patients with lymph node recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) are usually managed with androgen-deprivation therapy. Despite the absence of prospective randomized studies, salvage lymph node dissection (LND) has been proposed as an alternative treatment option.
To examine long-term outcomes of salvage LND in patients with nodal recurrent PCa documented by 11C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan.
Design, setting, and participants
Overall, 59 patients affected by biochemical recurrence (BCR) with 11C-choline PET/CT scan with pathologic activity treated between 2002 and 2008 were included.
Pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage LND.
Outcome measurements and statistical analyses
Biochemical response (BR) was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <0.2 ng/ml at 40 d after surgery. BCR for those who achieved BR was defined as a PSA >0.2 ng/ml. Clinical recurrence (CR) was defined as a positive PET/CT scan after salvage LND in the presence of a rising PSA. Kaplan-Meier curves assessed time to BCR, CR, and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Cox regression analyses were fitted to assess predictors of CR.
Results and limitations
Median follow-up after salvage LND was 81.1 mo. Overall, 35 patients (59.3%) achieved BR. The 8-yr BCR-free survival rate in patients with complete BR was 23%. Overall, the 8-yr CR- and CSM-free survival rates were 38% and 81%, respectively. In multivariable analyses evaluating preoperative variables, PSA at salvage LND represented the only predictor of CR (p = 0.03). When postoperative variables were considered, BR and the presence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases were significantly associated with the risk of CR (allp≤ 0.04). Our study is limited by the lack of a control group.
Salvage LND may represent a therapeutic option for patients with BCR after RP and nodal pathologic uptake at 11C-choline PET/CT scan. Although most patients progressed to BCR after salvage LND, roughly 40% of them experienced CR-free survival.
Salvage lymph node dissection may represent a therapeutic option for selected patients with nodal recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Roughly 40% of men did not show any further clinical recurrence at long-term follow-up after surgery.
Keywords: Salvage lymph node dissection, Prostate cancer, Clinical recurrence, Cancer-specific mortality, Lymph node metastases.
a Department of Urology, Urological Research Institute, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
b Department of Nuclear Medicine, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
Corresponding author. Department of Urology, URI-Urological Research Institute, San Raffaele Hospital, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy. Tel. +39 02 26436923; Fax: +39 02 26437298.
Both authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
© 2014 European Association of Urology, Published by Elsevier B.V.